Cost of Quality (COQ) is a methodology that helps organizations assess how their resources are used in preventing poor quality, appraising product quality, and addressing failures. This insight enables potential savings through process improvements.

Breaking Down the Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)

COPQ represents expenses linked to delivering substandard products or services and includes:

  1. Appraisal Costs: Evaluating conformity to quality standards.
  2. Internal Failure Costs: Correcting defects before delivery.
  3. External Failure Costs: Addressing defects post-delivery.
Appraisal Costs

These involve activities to measure and monitor quality, such as:

  • Verification: Ensuring incoming materials meet specifications.
  • Quality Audits: Confirming the quality system functions properly.
  • Supplier Rating: Evaluating and approving suppliers.
Internal Failure Costs
These arise from defects found before products reach customers:
  • Waste: Unnecessary work or excess inventory.
  • Scrap: Unusable defective products.
  • Rework: Correcting defective materials.
  • Failure Analysis: Identifying causes of internal failures.
External Failure Costs
These costs occur when defects are found by customers:
  • Repairs and Servicing: Fixing returned products.
  • Warranty Claims: Replacing failed products.
  • Complaints: Handling customer complaints.
  • Returns: Managing recalled products.
Enhancing Quality Cost Management with Process Engineering
Process Engineering can help improve quality cost management by:

  • Analyzing quality costs.
  • Developing quality cost programs and improvement plans.
  • Restructuring work and quality procedures.
  • Implementing quality auditing programs.
  • Developing supplier evaluation procedures.
For more information, please contact the technical department of Process Engineering.



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